Noun Clause, İsim Cümlesi
Reducing that – clauses to to – infinitive clauses
Study the table.
They are happy that they have a daughter.
They are happy to have a daughter.
I hope that I will see him today.
I hope to see him today.
= I want to see him today , but maybe it wont be possible.
She decided that she could help her parents.
= She made up her mind to help her parents.
It is necessary that learn English.
It is necessary for him to learn English ( 1 )
As seen , noun clause can be reduced to the to – infinitive clauses if the subjects used in the main clause and the that – clause are the same. If they are not the same ( as : I hope that she will come today. ) , the that – clause cant be reduced to the to – infinitive clause. Pay attention that if the noun clause formed with it’s necessary / essential that etc. , for is used when it is reduced to a to – infinitive clause. ( 1 )
Exercise 1. Rewrite these sentences , reducing the that – clauses to to – infinitive clauses.
1 ) I hope that I will have finished my homework before 10 o ‘ clock.
I hope to finish my homework before 10 o ‘ clock.
2 ) I expect that I’ll have completed my PhD by 1997.
3 ) I expect that I will go to England for Christmas.
4 ) I have decided that I will fly with THY.
5 ) He’s decided that he will marry me.
6 ) I have decided that I will finish my relationship.
7 ) He hopes that he can work in France.
8 ) I expect that I will pass my exams.
9 ) I hope that I will forget about him soon.
10 ) I expect that I will find a better job soon.
Exercise 2. In which of the following sentences , can you use an infinitive noun clause instead of a that – clause ? Maket he neccessary alterations where possible.
1 ) Ekim hopes that he will pass the exam.
2 ) The teacher hopes that Ekim will pass the exam.
3 ) Parents always hope that their children will be happy and healthy.
4 ) Parents always hope that they can give the best to their children.
5 ) He expected that he would arrive early in the afternoon.
6 ) He expected that she should arrive early in the afternoon.
7 ) He decided that he would stop smoking.
8 ) He decided that his daughter must be in the house every night by ten o ‘ clock.
9 ) Columbus hoped that he would find the southwest passage to India.
10 ) Queen Isabella hoped that Columbus would find the southwest passage to India.
Question – word noun clauses can often be reduced to to – infinitve clauses but the question word remains :
I forgot what I should say.
I forgot what to say.
= I didnt remember my words.
He knows who ( m ) he should believe.
He knows who ( m ) to believe.
= He is aware of who is to be believed.
We remembered where we should go.
We remembered where to go.
= We didnt forget where to go.
She decided when she would leave.
She decided when to leave.
= She decided the time of leaving.
You must learn how you should greet people.
You must learn how to greet people.
= You must learn greetings.
I dont know how I should solve the problem.
I dont know how to solve the problem.
I must decide immediately whether I should buy a car or not.
I must decide immediately whether to buy a car or not.
As seen , when a noun clause begins with how , what , where , when or whom, and is in the position of object , and its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause , it can be reduced to a to – infinitive clause , omitting the subject and helping verb if there is one.
Exercise 3 . Rewrite these sentences , reducing the question – word noun clauses to to – infinitive clauses.
1 ) He remembered what he should do.
He remembered what to do.
2 ) I cant decide what I should wear.
3 ) She knew when she should speak.
4 ) They were told where they could find a doctor.
5 ) We understood to whom we were to give it.
6 ) The fisherman knew where he could catch it.
7 ) She doesnt know what she should say.
8 ) They planned when they would go on holiday.
Exercise 4 . Rewrite the following sentences , reducing noun clauses to to – infinitive clauses.
1 ) I know what I should do.
I know what to do.
2 ) It is essential that every student do his homework.
3 ) She is very happy that she has been chosen as Miss Turkey.
4 ) I havent decided yet whether I should go for a holiday.
5 ) The teacher told us how we could learn English.
6 ) It is important that everybody should pay his / her tax in time.
7 ) It is necessary that you should have a check – up.
8 ) Could you tell me how I can make a cake ?
9 ) I dont know when I should see the doctor again.
10 ) I am glad that I have passed all my exams.
11 ) It’s vital that we get there on time.
12 ) She’s very angry that she hasnt been promoted.
Exercise 5 . Rewrite these sentences , changin the reduced clauses into ones having subjects.
1 ) I hope to see you today.
I hope that I will see you today.
2 ) Living in the village , we dont have an air pollution problem.
3 ) Studying at the teacher trainig school , I took photos to earn pocket money.
4 ) I dont know what to do.
5 ) A person having self – confidence cant be pessimistic.
6 ) Though dismissed , he is very unhappy.
7 ) Whether guilty or innocent , she mustnt be scolded.
8 ) Since leaving school without having permission he has been punished.
9 ) You can make any changes if necessary.
10 ) It is nesessary fort hem to be at the meeting.
11 ) It is essential for a baby to be fed on its mother ‘ s milk.
12 ) Thet did their best to win the match.
13 ) The security forces found a lot of guns and bullets buried in the field.
14 ) A man having little or no hair on the top of his head is bald.
15 ) The boss suggested being punctual.
16 ) Is there anything to eat ?
17 ) The judge told the eyewitness to tell the truth.
18 ) The police checking all the buses leaving the bus station caught some criminals trying to escape.
19 ) The passangers wounded in the traffic accident were taken to hospitals nearby by ambulances.
20 ) I like to see the mountains covered with snow , looking like a bride wearing a wedding dress.
21 ) We generally say goodbye when leaving the house.
22 ) The traffic policeman warned me to wear the seat – belt.
23 ) I remembered telling you.
24 ) While at work , I only think about what I’m doing.
25 ) I saw her stealing your purse.
Exercise 6 . Rewrite the sentences below , beginning with ‘ Do you know .. ‘ to make if / whether – clauses. Note that if and whether always suggest that there are two alternatives.
1 ) Is she happy ?
Do you know if she ‘ s happy ?
Do you know whether she ‘ s happy ( or not ) ?
2 ) Is there a man in the car ?
3 ) Will Ekim pass his exams ?
4 ) Can they meet us at the airport ?
5 ) Has she closed all the windows ?
6 ) Has she switched off the lights ?
7 ) Has Ayla got enough money for a newspaper ?
8 ) Did you find the right answers ?
Exercise 7 . Complete the response to these questions with an ‘ if / whertehr – clause ‘
1 ) Are his marks very high ?
I dont know if his marks are very high ( or not ).
2 ) Is she a rich woman ?
It doesnt interest me ………………….
3 ) Did he post the letter today ?
Ask him ………………..
4 ) Can she solve her problem ?
I am not sure ……………………
5 ) Has she done any French ?
Do you know …………………………
6 ) Will it rain ?
I dont know …………………
7 ) Has their business got financial problems ?
We wonder ………………….
8 ) Will they come ?
I dont know …………………..
9 ) Is Professor Tayfur in his laboratory ?
I dont know …………………..
10 ) Does she walk to school ?
Ask her ………………
11 ) Did Nurten break the window ?
I dont know …………………..
12 ) Has Aziz got one or two brothers ?
I would like to know ………………………